Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which set legally binding emission reduction targets (as well as sanctions for non-compliance) only for developed countries, the Paris Agreement requires all countries – rich, poor, developed and developing – to contribute to and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To this end, the Paris Agreement incorporates greater flexibility: there is no language about the commitments countries should make, nations can voluntarily set their emissions targets (NNCs), and countries will not be punished if they fail to meet their proposed targets. But what the Paris Agreement requires is to monitor, report and reassess countries` individual and collective goals over time, in order to bring the world closer to the broader goals of the agreement. The four largest emitters (China, THE US, EU27 and India) have contributed more than 55% of total emissions over the past decade, while excluding emissions resulting from land-use change such as deforestation. China`s emissions increased by 1.6% in 2018 to a peak of 13.7 Gt CO2 equivalent. The United States emits 13% of global emissions and emissions increased by 2.5% in 2018. The EU emits 8.5% of global emissions has fallen by 1% per year over the last ten years. Emissions decreased by 1.3% in 2018. 7% of India`s global emissions increased by 5.5% in 2018, but its per capita emissions are one of the lowest in the G20.  Among other things, countries need to report on their greenhouse gas inventories and progress against their targets, so that external experts can assess their success.
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